Tag Archive for 'vocabulary'

How NOT to Study GRE Vocabulary: Malapropisms

mask01Like many blogs, It’s Not GREek! regularly receives many spam comments such as this gem:

“There is a great deal of playing that goes into place for sewer driving. If you fail to take some action, any strain on your sewer line may lead to tantamount problems. You’ll be able to tell when the auger contacts the material causing the clog.”

Like many other spam comments, this one is rife with errors (although I have seen far worse). In particular, I would like to draw your attention to the use of the word “tantamount” in the following sentence:

“If you fail to take some action, any strain on your sewer line may lead to tantamount problems.”

While less common than the “generic praise and flattery” strategy (i.e. – “This post is so helpful! Thank you so much!!!”), the “vocabulary showoff”strategy remains popular with spammers, presumably because they believe that posts featuring sequipedalians will be perceived as educated, legitimate comments, no matter how nonsensical or unrelated to the blog post at hand. Unfortunately, these polysyllables are often used incorrectly.

According to dictionary.com, the word “tantamount” can be defined as “equivalent, as in value, force, effect, or signification.” Clearly, this is not how the word is used here. The author of the above comment clearly thought that the word “tantamount” was an intensifier of some sort rather than an expression of equivalence. In the above sentence, we can infer that “tantamount problems” was supposed to be a fancier way of saying very big/bad/important problems.

One possible explanation for this confusion would be that the author mistook the word “tantamount” for the word “paramount,” which according to dictionary.com means “chief in importance or impact; supreme; preeminent.” This kind of error is known as a malapropism.

401px-Richard_Brinsley_Sheridan_1751_-_1816In 1775, Richard Brinsley Sheridan was newly married, living it up in the fashionable English resort of Bath, and short on cash. As something of a well-connected dandy and wit, he decided that the way to save himself from financial embarrassment was…to write a play. Thus, his comedy The Rivals and his most famous character, Mrs. Malaprop, were born. In the play, Mrs. Malaprop fulfills the stock roll of the dull, fun-killing chaperone for a young, beautiful, head-strong heiress. What makes her stand out from a sea of similar characters in English literature is her gag: she has a bad habit of confusing similar sounding words, often to exquisite comic effect. For instance consider the following line from the play:

“Sure, if I reprehend any thing in this world it is the use of my oracular tongue, and a nice derangement of epitaphs!”

Probably, she meant to say something like this:

“If I apprehend anything in this world, it is the use of my vernacular tongue, and a nice arrangement of epithets.”

A critical caricature by James Gillray of Sheridan as a bottle of old sherry.

A critical caricature by James Gillray of Sheridan as a bottle of old sherry.

Hilarious. Anyway, after a disastrous premier Sheridan made a few tweaks to the play and it went on to become so popular that this kind of error has been forever hence known as a “malapropism.” Mrs. Malaprop’s name is after all derived from the French “mal à propos” meaning poorly placed or, in a more general sense, inappropriate. Thus, Mrs. Malaprop is literally “Mrs. Inappropriate.”

Beware of these kinds of errors when studying vocabulary or when writing essays. Just because you’ve heard a word before doesn’t mean you actually know it. Always make sure to look up the definitions of even familiar sounding words, because the word you are familiar with may only sound like the one you happen to be studying at the moment.

As a final note, “paramount,” while more accurate than tantamount, is still somewhat problematic in the context of the original sentence:

“If you fail to take some action, any strain on your sewer line may lead to paramount problems.”

“Paramount,” you see, tends to have a positive connotation, since its meanings include not only “chief in importance or impact” but also “supreme,” “preeminent,” or even “above others in rank or authority; superior in power or jurisdiction.” Thus, it would be unidiomatic to describe “problems” as “paramount,” since problems are by definition bad. Finding the solution to a problem might be paramount, but the problem itself is never really described that way. Consider the following correct example sentence:

“When preparing for the GRE, studying vocabulary is paramount, because failing to do so is tantamount to kissing a good verbal score goodbye.”

And that, my friends, is the bottom line. Happy studying!

Sometimes it is GREek: Panacea

Panacea

This symbol, which is of a staff entwined with snakes, is known as the Rod of Asclepius; it has been associated with the art of healing and medicine since the time of the Greeks.

“It’s not GREek!” loves to discuss new words that are likely to appear on the GRE.  We aim not only to give you a new word to memorize, but also to provide you with some background and etymological history to help you remember it.  At the end of the post, we will also give you a sentence with a few other new words to add to your flash cards.  By following this weekly series, you should be more prepared than ever to tackle the sentence completion, sentence equivalencies, and reading comprehension questions on test day.

This Week’s Word: Panacea

A panacea is a cure-all; medicinally, it is a remedy for any and every illness, evil, or disease. Panacea can also mean an answer or solution to a complex or convoluted problem, or more specifically a solution to any problem.

Panacea is often used in a negative or sarcastic context, as in, “The governor thinks this proposal will act as a panacea for the budget, even though it will slow growth with new taxes.” The reason for this is because, unfortunately, there is no such thing as a panacea.

Panacea finds its etymological roots in the Greek pan-, meaning ‘all,’ + akḗs, or ‘a cure.’ As a prefix, pan- is especially important to remember as meaning ‘all’; you will almost certainly see other words that employ it on test day, like pandemic, pantheism, or even Pangaea. Though used today in a largely negative sense, as an illusory, erroneous, or deceptive solution, in ancient Greece, Panacea was revered as a goddess of healing.

According to Greek mythology, Panacea, one of four daughters of Asclepius (the god of the medical art), possessed a poultice or potion which she used to heal the sick; this poultice was an effective cure against all maladies. This, of course, brought about the idea of a panacea in medicine, a single cure for any illness.

Sample Sentence:

Pitying pulchritudinous Pat’s pathologically pink pimples, Peter purloined putrid purple poultices, possibly perceiving potentially prettifying panaceas.

Miss the last “Sometimes it is Greek?” Check it out here! Want more GRE vocabulary? Click here for the free Test Masters GRE vocabulary list with over 2,000 words!

 

 

Sometimes it is GREek: Solipsism

solipsism

“Poetry resembles metaphysics: one does not mind one’s own, but one does not like anyone else’s.” – Sam Butler

“It’s not GREek!” loves to discuss new words that are likely to appear on the GRE.  We aim not only to give you a new word to memorize, but also to provide you with some background and etymological history to help you remember it.  At the end of the post, we will also give you a sentence with a few other new words to add to your flash cards.  By following this weekly series, you should be more prepared than ever to tackle the sentence completion, sentence equivalencies, and reading comprehension questions on test day.

This Week’s Word: Solipsism

Solipsism is the extreme preoccupation with and indulgence of one’s feelings, desires, etc.; it is an egotistical self-absorption.

Solipsism also has a less egotistic and more ego-oriented definition. To philosophers, solipsism is the theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and verified; this is the theory that the self is the only reality.

dostojevski

“But what can a decent man speak of with most pleasure? / Answer: Of himself. / Well, so I will talk about myself.” – Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Notes from Underground

From the Latin solus, “alone” + ipse, “self,” solipsism holds that self is the only object of real knowledge; it is a skeptical hypothesis and ultimately leads to the belief that the external world is merely a representation of the individual self. Often considered a bankrupt philosophy, critics argue that a solipsist communicating philosophical ideas is ludicrous as, by definition, a true solipsist believes there is no other mind with whom they can communicate their beliefs.

Sample Sentence:

Salutary solipsist, Solomon, sanguinely salutes sophisticated sophistssophomoric sensibilities.

Miss the last “Sometimes it is Greek?” Check it out here! Want more GRE vocabulary? Click here for the free Test Masters GRE vocabulary list with over 2,000 words!

GRE Vocab and the Seven Deadly Sins: Part I – Lust

An early sixteenth century Dutch depiction of the seven deadly sins, by a follower of Hieronymus Bosch.

An early sixteenth century Dutch depiction of the seven deadly sins, by a follower of Hieronymus Bosch.

Back in the day, everyone in Western Europe was Catholic. It should thus be no surprise that Catholic theology has left a profound impact on the English language, and has granted us many excellent, Latin-based GRE vocab words. In this GRE Vocab series, we will discuss words that describe the seven deadly sins and the seven heavenly virtues. Some of these words are easy, but others are more unusual, and all of them have synonyms and related words that are frequently tested on the GRE.

In Catholicism, the seven deadly sins are considered to be the root causes or motivations for all sinful actions, and include lust, gluttony, avarice, sloth, wrath, envy, and pride. Each sin has a corresponding heavenly virtue that was meant to strengthen the good catholic against the temptations of sin and the consequent risk of eternal damnation. The seven heavenly virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.

The sin of Luxuria was often personified as a beautiful woman, much like the Roman goddess Venus.

The sin of Luxuria was often personified as a beautiful woman, much like the Roman goddess Venus.

You are probably familiar with the meaning of the word lust, which refers to excessive sexual desire. In Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Catholic Church, the word for lust is luxuria, from which our modern word, “luxury,” is derived. The English word “lust” is derived from the German word Lust, which simply means joy, pleasure, delight, or desire, and does not have the same sinful overtones as the English word. A word often used as a synonym of lust was the word lechery. lecherous person was a lustful person – a person given over to unrestrained sexual desires. If someone is lustful, you might also describe his or her behavior as wanton, licentious, libertine, promiscuous, libidinous, prurient, salacious, concupiscent, lewd, or lascivious. 

The word wanton means overindulgent, especially concerning sexual desires or material luxuries. It can also mean heedless or refer to an action done without regard for morality, justice, and all that’s right and good, as in “wanton destruction.” Licentious means sexually unrestrained as well. You might recognize the word “licence” hiding in “licentious.” We all know that a driver’s licence is something that gives you freedom to drive legally, but the word licence can also refer to freedom generally, like “poetic licence,” when poets or writers bend the truth in order to make their stories more compelling. Licence especially refers to an excess of freedom or abuse of freedom. So a licentious person is someone who allows him or herself excessive sexual licence.

The word “libertine” has a meaning derived from similar logic: you probably recognize the word “liberty” in “libertine.” This word has a particular association with the eighteenth century (the 1700s) and the age of the Enlightenment, a time when new ideas about democracy and freedom were circulating throughout Europe even as absolutist monarchies and privileged aristocracies maintained their hold on power. As new ideas about political freedom became more common, there was fear among some that these liberties would lead to an erosion of morality, especially sexual morality (even though aristocrats were the ones who were infamous for their sexual misbehavior).

A portrait of the notorious Casanova.

A portrait of the notorious Casanova.

Eighteenth century figures like the famous seducer Casanova and the twisted Marquis de Sade (we get the words sadism and sadistic from his last name, de Sade – he was turned on by causing women physical pain, and he wrote about it extensively. Masochism is the enjoyment of physical pain itself, hence the modern abbreviation “S&M”), stoked fears that too much political liberty would make everyone turn lustful and lecherous and would be the end of civilization as we know it. A libertine was thus a man who lived a life of unrestrained sexual indulgence, and perhaps also made a practice of seducing otherwise “virtuous” women (back then, a woman’s “virtue” consisted of only one thing: waiting until marriage to have sex and then only having sex with her husband and no one else). Another word for this kind of seducer is rake (the adjective form of the word rake, rakish, actually means debonair, fashionable, jaunty, and charming – just the qualities a successful rake might need)

The word libertine could also be used as an adjective to describe people who behaved like libertines or deeds that a libertine might commit. Perhaps the best example of the eighteenth century libertine is the legendary, fictional character of Don Juan, a Spanish nobleman who uses his aristocratic privileges and good looks to seduce thousands of women, until he is dragged to hell by the ghost of the father of a woman he attempted to rape. The Don Juan legend is famously portrayed in Mozart’s opera, Don Giovanni (Giovanni is the Italian version of the Spanish name Juan, both of which are equivalents of the English name John).

The word promiscuous is an adjective that refers to casual and often indiscriminate sexual behavior with a number of partners. The noun form is promiscuity. It derives from the Latin word promiscuus, which literally meant “mixed-up” – you might notice the root misc in promiscuous is shared with the word “miscellaneous,” which means mixed and often uncategorized. Libidinous is derived from word libido, a Latin based word for one’s sex drive. Libidinous is thus a synonym for lustful.

I can post Titian’s famous painting of Diana and Actaeon on this website because it’s great art!

The word prurient is derived from the Latin word prurire, which means “to itch.” Over time it came to mean lustful as well. Prurient is a word that is often used in legal contexts; for instance, legally speaking, what is the difference between a picture of a naked woman in a pornographic magazine and a painting of a naked woman in an art museum? One explanation (which you may or may not agree with) is that the magazine appeals to “the prurient interest” whereas the painting apparently appeals to a more innocent appreciation of beauty. The phrase “prurient interest” is often used when there is suspicion that someone may be getting some kind of perverted pleasure out of something when they’re not supposed to. For example, some people might argue that the tortures beautiful women often go through in gory modern horror films might appeal to the sadistic prurient interest of some viewers.

A scarlet woman corrupts passers-by with her tentacles of sin in this Victorian public service announcement.

A scarlet woman corrupts passers-by with her tentacles of sin in this Victorian public service announcement.

Salacious is another synonym for lustful that derives from the Latin word salax, which in turn derives from the Latin verb salire, which, according to dictionary.com, can mean “to jump, move spasmodically, spurt.” No explanation needed there, methinks. The word concupiscent also means lustful; it derives from the Latin con- (with) cupere (desire). Lewd also means lustful or obscene, and it does not derive from a Latin word. It is a very old English word that originally meant common, uneducated, peasant-like. I suppose over time the assumption was that the lower classes had crude tastes, although as we have seen the aristocrats were just as guilty (if not more so). Lascivious is yet another synonym derived from the Latin lascivia, or playfulness.

The virtue meant to combat all this lust was, of course, chastity, or the quality of being chaste, pure, sexually restrained (from the Latin castus). Immaculate, intemerate, inviolate, celibate, and continent are all words related to the virtue of chastity. Immaculate comes from the latin word immaculatus, which breaks down into the prefix im- (meaning not) and the root macula (meaning blemish). The word immaculate thus means spotless, unblemished, perfect, and pure. In Catholicism, the Blessed Virgin Mary is often called the Immaculata, or “the immaculate one,” because she is believed to have been free of original sin from the moment she was concieved in her mother’s womb (this is known as the doctrine of the immaculate conception – as to what all that means, that’s another article). Because of the word’s association with Mary, it also has a strong connotation of sexual purity as well, although you can also use it to describe anything that is pure, spotless, clean, or perfect – like a neat freak’s living room.

Intemerate and inviolate have similar derivations and meanings. Intemerate derives from the latin in- (not) and temerare (to darken, violate), and inviolate derives from the latin in- (not) and violatus (hurt). Both mean not violated or not hurt, but more specifically they mean not raped or not defiled – pure, especially sexually. Celibacy is the quality of completely abstaining from all sexual activity. A person who practices celibacy is celibate or is a celibate (celibate can be either a noun or an adjective). It comes from the latin word caelebs, meaning “unmarried.” In the Catholic church, all priests, monks, and nuns take vows of celibacy, renouncing all sexual acts and relationships. Continent comes from the latin verb continere, meaning “to contain.” It refers to sexual restraint or self-control: the ability to “contain” one’s desires. In modern medical terminology, however, continence is the ability to control when one urinates or defecates – if a patient is incontinent, he or she may need an adult diaper.

Those are all the GRE words having to do with lust and chastity that I can think of for now. If you want extra help with GRE vocab from me or another GRE expert, remember that you can always contact Test Masters and get the best prep available. Next time, we discuss another deadly sin: avarice. Until then, avoid temptation, and keep studying!

By Calvin Dotsey

Sometimes it is Greek: Conflagration

A photograph of a California wildfire, taken by an employee of the US Bureau of Land Management (2009).

A photograph of a California wildfire, taken by an employee of the US Bureau of Land Management (2009).

Each week, “It’s not GREek!” will discuss a new word likely to appear on the GRE.  We aim not only to give you a new word to memorize, but also to provide you with some background and etymological history to help you remember it.  At the end of the post, we will also give you a sentence with a few other new words to add to your flash cards.  By following this weekly series, you should be more prepared than ever to tackle the sentence completion, sentence equivalencies, and reading comprehension questions on test day.

This Week’s Word: Conflagration

A conflagration is a large, destructive fire. Conflagration is descended directly from the Latin conflagrationem, a combination of the intensive prefix com- + flargrare, which translates as “to burn.”

Intensive prefixes are used to indicate a stronger or more forceful action relative to the stem word; in this case, a conflagration is not just a fire but a BIG, destructive, and extensive fire. A fire that decimates dozens or hundreds of acres, for example, could be called a conflagration.

Sample Sentence:

California’s catastrophic conflagrations caused calamitous chaos.

Miss last week’s “Sometimes it is Greek?” Check it out here! Want more GRE vocabulary? Click here for the free Test Masters GRE vocabulary list with over 2,000 words!

 

GRE Verbal Reasoning Problem: 17th c. Chinese Pleasure Garden

Kew Gardens: The Pagoda and Bridge, by Richard Wilson (1762)

Kew Gardens: The Pagoda and Bridge, by Richard Wilson (1762)

Each week “It’s not GREek!” will present you with question types you are likely to see on the GRE, as well as a brief explanation on how to arrive at the answer for each question. We’ll start by examining a few simple Verbal Reasoning questions and gradually move onto more complicated question types.

 

  1. Parts of seventeenth-century Chinese pleasure gardens were not necessarily intended to look —–; they were designed expressly to evoke the agreeable melancholy resulting from a sense of the —– of natural beauty and human glory.
    1. beautiful … immutability
    2. cheerful … transitoriness
    3. colorful … abstractness
    4. luxuriant … simplicity
    5. conventional … wildness

Explanation: This is a high-level difficulty question because some of the vocabulary seems to be similar in meaning and, initially, there appears to be multiple correct answers. To answer this question correctly you have to identify the key words and phrases. The phrase “not necessarily intended” indicates the answer choice for the first blank will be a word that is comparable or synonymous with what we would expect of a Chinese pleasure garden. Another key phrase to determining the correct answer is “agreeable melancholy.” Coupled with “not necessarily intended to look,” the term “agreeable melancholy” tells us we are looking for a word that would both describe what we would expect of a Chinese pleasure garden and is opposite in meaning to melancholy. Melancholy is the state of being sad; of the available answer choices, only “cheerful” is both something we might expect of a Chinese pleasure garden and a true antonym of melancholy. Though we have identified “cheerful” as the most correct word for blank 1, that is not enough to know with absolute certainty that (b) is the correct answer choice. After “agreeable melancholy,” the next most important clues to filling in blank 2 are “natural beauty” and “human glory.” Beauty and glory are most often good things; however, the second half of this sentence says parts of the Chinese pleasure garden were “designed expressly to evoke” melancholy. The correct word for blank 2 will be the word that best expresses the reasons we might feel melancholy when contemplating human beauty and glory. One reason you might be melancholy when contemplating beauty and glory is because of their transient, short-lived, or impermanent nature. Of the available answer choices, only “transitoriness” means short-lived or quickly fading. Thus the answer is (b).

You can never have enough vocabulary words; here are the definitions of all the answer choices:

Beautiful: having qualities that delight the senses, especially the sense of sight. Exciting intellectual or emotional admiration.

Immutability: Not subject or susceptible to change.

Cheerful: Being good in spirits; merry. Promoting a feeling of cheer; pleasant. Reflecting willingness or good humor.

Transitoriness: Existing or lasting only a short time; short-lived or temporary.

Colorful: Full of color; abounding in colors. Characterized by rich variety; vividly distinctive.

Abstractness: Considered apart from concrete existence. Not applied or practical; theoretical. Difficult to understand; abstruse. Thought of or stated without reference to a specific instance. Impersonal, as in attitude or views. Having an intellectual and affective artistic content that depends solely on intrinsic form rather than on narrative content or pictorial representation.

Luxuriant: Characterized by rich or profuse growth. Producing or yielding in abundance. Excessively florid or elaborate. Marked by or displaying luxury.

Simplicity: The property, condition, or quality of being simple or uncombined. Absence of luxury or showiness; plainness. Absence of affectation or pretense. Lack of sophistication or subtlety. Clarity of expression. Austerity in embellishment.

Conventional: Based on or in accordance with general agreement, use, or practice; customary. Conforming to established practice or accepted standards; traditional.

Wildness: Occurring, growing, or living in a natural state; not domesticated, cultivated, or tamed. Uncivilized or barbarous. Disorderly; disarranged. Full of, marked by, or suggestive of strong, uncontrolled emotion. Furiously disturbed or turbulent.

You can find additional GRE example problems and solutions here.

Remember, the experts at Test Masters are available year-round for all your test preparatory needs.

 

Sometimes it is Greek: Vituperation

La Censure (Censorship) as portrayed by Léon Bienvenu (1835-1911).

To an artist, there is no higher form of censure or censorship that the callous destruction of one’s art.

Each week, “It’s not GREek!” will discuss a new word likely to appear on the GRE.  We aim not only to give you a new word to memorize, but also to provide you with some background and etymological history to help you remember it.  At the end of the post, we will also give you a sentence with a few other new words to add to your flash cards.  By following this weekly series, you should be more prepared than ever to tackle the sentence completion, sentence equivalencies, and reading comprehension questions on test day.

This Week’s Word: Vituperation

Vituperation is a sustained and bitter railing and condemnation; it is also defined as a venomous censure. Etymological records date vituperation back to the mid-15th century, though indications are that it was rarely used before the early 19th century. Vituperation is a derivative of the Latin vituperationem, which roughly translates to “blame or censuring.”

Vtuperation can be defined as censure, but it is more commonly associated with the acts of reviling, vilifying, and addressing with harsh language.

Ashley Montagu (1905-1999), a famous anthropologist and humanist, was very familiar with the concept of vituperation. Born in East London, Ashley was often the subject of antisemitic taunts as a child; even later in his life, as a professor and academic, Montagu was subject to both social and professional censure. In Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: the Fallacy of Race (1942), Montagu questioned  the validity of race as a biological concept. His theories were met with fiery vituperation by the McCarthyism-oriented culture of the early-to-mid 1950s, and Montagu was fired from his professorship at Rutgers University in 1955.

Montagu’s story was one of eventual success and social redemption (he was frequently a guest of “The Tonight Show” with Johnny Carson and won several Humanity awards for his work), but it is easy to understand why a man with a life like his would have a strong opinion on the topic of parochial condemnation and censorship.

Montagu makes a very interesting distinction between a vituperative act, like swearing, and the more personal malison of a curse; “The indications are that swearing preceded the development of cursing. That is, expletives, maledictions, exclamations, and imprecations of the immediately explosive or vituperative kind preceded the speechmaking and later rituals involved in the deliberate apportioning of the fate of an enemy. Swearing of the former variety is from the lips only, but the latter is from the heart. Damn it! is not the same as Damn you!”

Though Montagu seems to insist in this quote that vituperation lacks the personalization characteristic of a curse, that is a broadly academic and specifically etymological perspective to take. Though there may be a noteworthy contrast between a vituperation and a curse, if you see the word on the GRE you should treat them synonymously.

Sample Sentence:

Vanessa’s vicious vituperation vilipended Vlad’s vain venerable veneer.

Miss last week’s “Sometimes it is Greek?” Check it out here! Want more GRE vocabulary? Click here for the free Test Masters GRE vocabulary list with over 2,000 words!

 

GRE Verbal Reasoning Problem: A judicious biography

Each week “It’s not GREek!” will present you with question types you are likely to see on the GRE, as well as a brief explanation on how to arrive at the answer for each question. We’ll start by examining a Verbal Reasoning question:

  1. A judicious biography must be (i) ____ representation that depicts both the strengths and the weaknesses of the subject, avoiding the two extremes of (ii) ____ and indictment.

Blank (i)                                                                            Blank (ii)

A. a complimentary D. censure
B. a polarized E. eulogy
C. an equitable F. vindication

 

Explanation: The key phrase to answering Blank (i) is “judicious” and “both the strengths and the weakness.” These phrases tells us that the correct answer choice will be the word that best corresponds to the conditions of depicting a person’s positive and negative characteristics equally; it must the answer choice that best corresponds to fair and balanced. Of the available answer choices only “equitable” means just and impartial; thus the answer choice to Blank (i) is (C).

The way to go about answering Blank (ii) is to begin by recognizing you are looking for an antonym. You should recognize the phrase “avoiding the two extremes of ____ and indictment” is telling you the answer to Blank (ii) is the word most opposite in meaning to indictment.  “To indict” someone is to accuse of wrongdoing, or to make a formal accusation. Of the three answer choices, “vindication” is most opposite in meaning; it is an argument in support or justification of something.

You can never have enough vocabulary words; here are the definitions of all the answer choices:

Complimentary: Expressing, using, or resembling a compliment.

Polarized: To cause to concentrate about two conflicting or contrasting positions.

Equitable: Marked by or having equity; just and impartial. Fair.

Censure: An expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism; an official rebuke.

Eulogy: A laudatory speech or written tribute, especially one praising someone who has died; high praise or commendation.

Vindication: The act of vindicating or condition of being vindicated. The defense, such as evidence or argument, that serves to justify a claim or deed.